10.0 Glossary

Articles

A manufactured item (1) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture; (2) which has end use functions(s) dependent in whole or in part upon it shape or design during end use; and (3) which does not release, or otherwise result in exposure to a hazardous substance under normal conditions of use or in a reasonably foreseeable emergency resulting from workplace operations.

Carcinogen

"Potential occupational carcinogen" means any substance, which causes an increased incidence of neoplasm, or a substantial decrease in the latency period between exposure and onset of neoplasm in humans or in animals as the result of exposure resulting in tumors. This definition also includes any substance that is metabolized into one or more potential occupational carcinogens by mammals. For further information see 29CFR1910.1990, ACGIH Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, NTP Annual Report of Carcinogens, or IARC Directory of Agents Being Tested for Carcinogenicity.

Chemical

Any substance, or mixture of substances.

Chemical Manufacturer

An employer with a workplace where chemical(s) are produced for use or distribution.

Chemical Name

The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name that will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of conducting a hazard classification.

Classification

To identify the relevant data regarding the hazards of a chemical; review those data to ascertain the hazards associated with the chemical; and decide whether the chemical will be classified as hazardous according to the definition of hazardous chemical. In addition, classification for health and physical hazards includes the determination of the degree of hazard, where appropriate, by comparing the data with the criteria for health and physical hazards.

Combustible Liquid

A liquid having a flash point greater than 100 degrees but less than 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

Consumer Products

Products used for their intended purpose in the amounts and frequency expected of general consumers.

Common Name

Any designation or identification such as code name, code number, trade name, brand name or generic name used to identify a chemical other than by its chemical name.

Container

Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, tank truck or the like that contains a hazardous substance. For purposes of this section, pipes or piping systems are not considered to be containers.

Corrosive

A substance that causes visible damage or permanent changes in human tissue upon contact.

Emergency

Any potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which may or does result in a release of a hazardous substance into the workplace.

Exposure or Exposed

Any situation arising from work operation where an employee may ingest, inhale, absorb through the skin or eyes, or otherwise come into contact with a hazardous substance.

Flammable Liquid

Any liquid having a flash point at or below 199.4 deg. F (93 deg. C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:

  1. Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 deg. F (23 deg. C) and having a boiling point at or below 95 deg. F (35 deg. C).
  2. Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 deg. F (23 deg. C) and having a boiling point above 95 deg. F (35 deg. C).
  3. Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4 deg. F (23 deg. C) and at or below 140 deg. F (60 deg. C).
  4. Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140 deg. F (60 deg. C) and at or below 199.4 deg. F (93 deg. C).

Forseeable Emergency

Any potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which could result in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace.

Hazardous Chemical

Any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified.

Hazardous Substance

A substance, in any form (solid, liquid, or gas), presenting a potential physical or health hazard or is included in the List of Hazardous Substances prepared by the Director pursuant to Labor Code section 6382.

Health Hazard

A chemical which is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: acute toxicity (any route of exposure); skin corrosion or irritation; serious eye damage or eye irritation; respiratory or skin sensitization; germ cell mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity (single or repeated exposure); or aspiration hazard. The criteria for determining whether a chemical is classified as a health hazard are detailed in Appendix A to §1910.1200 -- Health Hazard Criteria.

Hematopoietic System

Are stem cells and the early precursor cells which give rise to all the blood cell types that include both the myeloid (monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes/platelets and some dendritic cells) and lymphoid lineages (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, some dendritic cells). The hematopoietic tissue have cells with long term and short term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent and unipotent progenitors.

Hepatotoxin

(gr: hepato = liver) A chemical toxic substance which damages the liver.

Immediate Use

The hazardous substance will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Hazard Warning

Any words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof appearing on a label or other appropriate form of warning which convey the specific physical and health hazard(s), including target organ effects, of the chemical(s) in the container(s). (See the definitions for "physical hazard" and "health hazard" to determine the hazards which must be covered.)

Hazard Category

The division of criteria within each hazard class, e.g., oral acute toxicity and flammable liquids include four hazard categories. These categories compare hazard severity within a hazard class and should not be taken as a comparison of hazard categories more generally.

Hazard Class

The nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.

Hazard Not Otherwise Classified (HNOC)

An adverse physical or health effect identified through evaluation of scientific evidence during the classification process that does not meet the specified criteria for the physical and health hazard classes addressed in this section. This does not extend coverage to adverse physical and health effects for which there is a hazard class addressed in this section, but the effect either falls below the cut-off value/concentration limit of the hazard class or is under a GHS hazard category that has not been adopted by OSHA (e.g., acute toxicity Category 5).

Hazard Statement

A statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard.

Hazardous Chemical

Any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified.

Identity

Any chemical or common name which is indicated on the safety data sheet (SDS) for the chemical. The identity used shall permit cross-references to be made among the required list of hazardous chemicals, the label and the SDS.

Immediate Use

The hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.

Importer

The first business with employees within the Customs Territory of the United States which receives hazardous chemicals produced in other countries for the purpose of supplying them to distributors or employers within the United States.

Label

An appropriate group of written, printed or graphic information elements concerning a hazardous chemical that is affixed to, printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous chemical, or to the outside packaging.

Label Elements

The specified pictogram, hazard statement, signal word and precautionary statement for each hazard class and category.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

A fact sheet prepared by manufacturers containing specific information on a substance that poses a physical or health hazard in the workplace.

Mixture

A combination or a solution composed of two or more substances in which they do not react.

Nephrotoxins

Chemicals displaying nephrotoxicity

Nephrotoxicity

A poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on the kidney. There are various forms of toxicity. It should not be confused with the fact that some medications have a predominantly renal excretion and need their dose adjusted for the decreased renal function (e.g. heparin).

Neurotoxin

A toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. Many of the venoms and other toxins that organisms use in defense against vertebrates are neurotoxins. A common effect is paralysis, which sets in very rapidly.

Organic Peroxide

An organic compound that contains the bivalent -O-O-structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.

Oxidizer

A chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a) that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby causing fire either of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases.

Physical Hazard

A chemical that is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: explosive; flammable (gases, aerosols, liquids, or solids); oxidizer (liquid, solid or gas); self-reactive; pyrophoric (liquid or solid); self-heating; organic peroxide; corrosive to metal; gas under pressure; or in contact with water emits flammable gas. See Appendix B to §1910.1200 -- Physical Hazard Criteria.

Pictogram

A composition that may include a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color, that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical. Eight pictograms are designated under this standard for application to a hazard category.

Precautionary Statement

A phrase that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical or improper storage or handling.

Produce

To manufacture, process, formulate, blend, extract, generate, emit, or repackage.

Pyrophoric

A chemical that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 deg. F (54.4 deg. C) or below.

Responsible Party

Someone who can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.

Reproductive Toxin

A large number of workplace substances can damage the reproductive systems of both male and female workers. Occupational exposures can produce a wide range of effects on reproduction, including: reduced fertility, unsuccessful fertilization, an abnormal fetus, reduced libido, or menstrual dysfunction, miscarriage, low birth weight, birth defects, developmental or behavioral disabilities. These substances will be identified on the MSDS. For further information see 29CFR1910.1000

Routes of Entry

The method, by which a chemical can enter the body, specifically through inhalation, ingestion, dermal absorption/contact, injection.

Safety Data Sheet (SDS)

Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical that is prepared in accordance HCS 20 CFR .1910.1200

Specific Chemical Identity

The chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.

Substance

Chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product and any impurities deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.

Trade Secret

Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information or compilation of information that is used in an employer's business and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. Appendix D sets out the criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.

Unstable (reactive)

A chemical which in the pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure or temperature.

Use

To package, handle, react, emit, extract, generate as a byproduct, or transfer.

Water-Reactive

A chemical that reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.

Work Area

A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are produced or used, and where employees are present.

Workplace

An establishment, job site, or project, at one geographical location containing one or more work areas.