hall cushman

Hall Cushman

Professor, Community & Climate-Change Ecology


My research addresses a wide range of questions in ecology at the population, community, ecosystem and landscape levels. I am particularly interested in 1) the ecological consequences of anthropogenic climate change, 2) the long-term dynamics of tree and shrub populations, 3) the restoration of riparian corridors in arid landscapes, 4) the influence of native and domestic herbivores on plant and animal communities, and 5) the ecology and impacts of invasive, non-native plant species. My work has a strong applied emphasis and strives to provide science-based insights about the management and restoration of human-altered landscapes.

I have a diverse group of graduate students, postdocs and research technicians working with me on projects in ecology, conservation biology and restoration ecology – and am always on the look-out for bright, motivated individuals who want to join our group.

Courses & Teaching Responsibilities

Natural Resource Ecology (NRES 217); Plant Ecology (NRES 347); Climate-Change Policy (EECB 751)


B.S. Marlboro College
M.S. University of Arizona
Ph.D. Northern Arizona University



Context-dependent effects of a large mammalian herbivore on soil properties and processes due to soil texture and herbivore activity.


Ecology and Evolution 10:10858-10871.

Dodge, V., V. E. Eviner & J. H. Cushman.

Long-term and interactive effects of different mammalian consumers on growth, survival and recruitment of dominant tree species.


Ecology and Evolution 10:8801–8814.

Cushman, J. H., L. E. Saunders & T. K. Refsland.

Cascading effects of mammalian herbivores on ground-dwelling arthropods: variable responses across arthropod groups, habitats and seasons.


Journal of Animal Ecology 88:1319–1331.

Cecil, E., M. J. Spasojevic & J. H. Cushman.

Effects of native bryophytes on exotic grass invasion across an environmental gradient.


Ecosphere 10(6):e02769.

Kleinhesselink, A. R. & J. H. Cushman.

Synthesizing the effects of large, wild herbivore exclusion on ecosystem function.


Functional Ecology 33:1597–1610.

Forbes, E. S., J. H. Cushman, D. E. Burkepile, T. P. Young, M. Klope, H. S. Young.

Native herbivores and environmental heterogeneity as mediators of an exotic grass invasion.


Ecology and Evolution 7:1561–1571

Ender, C. L., C. E. Christian & J. H. Cushman.

Effects of individual, community and landscape drivers on the dynamics of a wildland forest epidemic.


Ecology 97:649-660

Haas, S. E., J. H. Cushman, W. W. Dillon, N. E. Rank, D. M. Rizzo and R. K. Meentemeyer.

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.


Oecologia 175:1277-1290

Kleinhesselink, A. R., S. M. Magnoli, & J. H. Cushman.

Community-level consequences of cattle grazing for an invaded grassland: variable responses of native and exotic vegetation.


Journal of Vegetation Science 24:332-343

Skaer, M. J., D. J. Graydon & J. H. Cushman.

Responses to invasion and invader removal differ between native and exotic plant groups in a coastal dune.


Oecologia 173:1521-1530.

Magnoli, S. M., A. R. Kleinhesselink, & J. H. Cushman.

Population genetic diversity and structure of two rare vernal pool grasses in central California.


Conservation Genetics 13:117-130

Gordon, S. P., C. M. Sloop, H. G. Davis & J. H. Cushman.

Native herbivores and plant facilitation mediate the performance and distribution of an invasive exotic grass.


Journal of Ecology 99:524-531

Cushman, J. H., C. J. Lortie & C. E. Christian.

Spatial estimation of the density and carbon content of host populations for Phytophthora ramorum in California and Oregon.


Forest Ecology & Management 262:989-998.

Lamsal, S., R. C. Cobb, J. H. Cushman, Q. Meng, D. M. Rizzo & R. K. Meentemeyer.

Community-level consequences of invasion: impacts of exotic clonal plants on riparian vegetation.


Biological Invasions 12:2765-2776

Cushman, J. H., & K. A. Gaffney.

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems.


Journal of Vegetation Science 21:821-831

Cushman, J. H., J. C. Waller & D. R. Hoak.

Influence of land-cover change on the spread of an invasive forest pathogen.


Ecological Applications 18:159-171.

Meentemeyer, R. K., N. E. Rank, B. L. Anacker & J. H. Cushman.

Multi-scale patterns of human activity and the incidence of an exotic forest pathogen.


Journal of Ecology 96:766-776

Cushman, J. H., & R. K. Meentemeyer

Negative effects of vertebrate herbivores on invertebrates in a coastal dune community.


Ecology 89:1972-1980.

Huntzinger, M., R. Karban & J. H. Cushman.

Effects of a directional abiotic gradient on plant community dynamics and invasion in a coastal dune system.


Journal of Ecology 95:468-481.

Lortie, C. J. & J. H. Cushman.

Influence of a large herbivore reintroduction on plant invasions and community composition in a California grassland.


Conservation Biology 21:15-521.

Johnson, B. E. & J. H. Cushman.

Temporal changes in native and exotic vegetation and soil characteristics following disturbances by feral pigs in a California grassland.


Biological Invasions 8:1073-1089.

Tierney, T. & J. H. Cushman

Indirect effects of deer herbivory on local nitrogen availability in a coastal dune ecosystem.


Oikos 110:124-132.

McNeil, S. G. & J. H. Cushman.