Jennifer Halen

Scholar: Jennifer Halen

Jennifer Halen

Major: Political Science

Faculty Mentor: Dr. Stacy Gordon

Research Topic: Women's Representation Through Quota Systems: A Comparative Study

Abstract: Quotas seeking to promote gender equality in representation vary based on typology, as well as implementation. I examine the categorical components of quota systems in order to determine the differences found across typologies. I then examine the similarities and differences in implementation in lower/single houses of legislatures found across these categories, as well as the differences in implementation found within each individual typology.  I focus on the 29 European democracies that have employed quota systems in some capacity. I address aspects such as sanctions for non-compliance, incentives created, and solely voluntary systems while looking at difference in implementation. I have primarily looked at Legislated Candidate Quota Systems and Voluntary Political Party Systems. This paper then seeks to put each type of quota system into context regarding real-world implementation in European Democracies. It will also seek to look at the inequalities of the results of these systems in comparison to one another. I have collected my information from the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Quota Project: Global Database for Quotas for Women, and the Inter-Parliamentary Union's database. I conclude that the diversity found between typologies, as well as within categorical inequalities resulting from differing implementation, results in making quota systems unequal across legislatures that have employed them.

New Scholar: 2011 cohort

Graduating With Baccalaureate Degree: 2012