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Wieland, A., Huang, L., & McKelvey, W. (Working paper). Cognitions and Decisions: An Exploration of Gender and Entrepreneurial Choice
Recent research suggests that women are disadvantaged when entering and pursing entrepreneurial opportunities supposedly due to the incongruity between feminine gender norms and the entrepreneurial role. This research draws from social-cognitive psychology and judgment and decision making research to explore the specific factors that influence decisions to pursue various kinds of venture opportunities both for men and women. A conceptual model is presented and tested using SEM which explores the influence of gender congruity of venture selection while estimating the influence of state self-efficacy, anticipated social resources, perceived risk and venture desirability. As expected, findings support the strong effect of gender congruence on cognitions related to venture risk, desirability and state self-efficacy. Interestingly, findings indicate that women, but not men, evaluate anticipated social support when making decisions about which ventures to pursue, and the relationship between gender congruency of entrepreneurial opportunity becomes insignificant when including all the variables in the model.
Gupta, V., Wieland, A. & Turban, D. (Under Review). What's good for the gander is not always good for the goose: Contextual variations in gender stereotypes about entrepreneurs
Substantial research within the management literature has emphasized the role of gender stereotypes in influencing entry and success in various occupational roles. The present study investigates gender stereotypical beliefs associated with entrepreneurship, and the relationship of perceiver gender and type of entrepreneurial role with stereotypes about entrepreneurship. We randomly assigned participants to complete the Schien Descriptive Index describing one of several target stimuli (entrepreneurs in general, men, women, entrepreneurs running rapid-growth ventures, entrepreneurs running slow-growth ventures, commercial entrepreneurs, or social entrepreneurs). We found that male and female respondents do not always agree on the stereotypic gendered characterizations about entrepreneurship. Specifically, although entrepreneurs and the various entrepreneurial roles are seen as masculine by men and women, only women, but not men, also perceive some overlap between feminine characteristics and attributes ascribed to entrepreneurs running commercial ventures and high-growth ventures. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. These results indicate that women have a somewhat broader repertoire of the characteristics associated with entrepreneurs, although they too, like men, place a strong emphasis on masculine attributes for entrepreneurship. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Hsu, D., Wieland, A. & Simmons, S. (Research in Progress). Entrepreneurship Experimental Research Methods: What's Been Done, What's Left to Do.
An exploration of the experimental research methods employed to date, including randomized, quasi, field and natural experiments. Opportunities are highlighted that would benefit from the greater use and inclusion of experimental methods in entrepreneurship research.